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密件全文:美国何时成了网络战士(When America Became a Cyberwarrior)

26/04/2013 | JEFFREY T. RICHELSON, MALCOLM BYRNEForeign Policy
A secret document shows the NSA(按,美国国家安全局the National Security Agency has been planning attacks since the Clinton years.

At a time when Chinese malware is targeting America's computer infrastructure and U.S.-Israeli worms (e.g., Stuxnet) have reportedly attacked Iranian centrifuges, a recently declassified item from the National Security Agency (NSA) offers a little history on how at least one part of the U.S. government foresaw its role in the growing field of "Information Warfare."

This short item from a classified NSA publication reveals that as far back as 1997 the super-secret agency was tasked with finding ways not just to listen in on our enemies (the NSA's usual stock-in-trade), but actually to attack hostile computer networks(不只是对敌人进行窃听(美国国家安全局的惯用手段)而且还要攻击敌方计算机网络. The document proclaimed that "the future of warfare is warfare in cyberspace," and it sketched out how tomorrow's "Information Warriors" would think, act, and fight on the new digital battlefield.
The NSA's involvement in cybersecurity is an outgrowth of its longtime role in ensuring communications and information security for various components of the government and private sector, in addition to its need to guarantee the security of the computers it has relied on heavily for decades. Its role in computer-network exploitation -- of gathering electronic "data at rest" -- is a natural extension of its decades-old role of gathering "data in motion" via signals intelligence美国国家安全局在计算机网络“刺探”-搜集电子“静态数据”-方面所发挥的作用,是其几十年来通过信号情报搜集“动态数据”的自然延伸)。
According to the document's author, a former special assistant to the NSA's director, the new activities -- not just "exploitation" and "protection," but "attack"不只是“刺探”和“保护”,而是“攻击” -- were "sure to be a catalyst for major change" at the agency. But, he pointed out to his colleagues, there should be no doubt that a new age of warcraft was dawning, brought about in no small part by changing mores in American society. Because of the information age, he wrote, "physical combat can be viewed in living rooms of America via television," (美国人可以在起居室里通过电视观看实际战斗and as a result, "[t]he horrors of war cannot be hidden." Therefore, "in the simplest of terms, 'body bags' are no longer acceptable," and there is "considerable societal pressure to find non-lethal means of accomplishing tasks that once called for conventional military action."
By all accounts, we're now seeing signs of that new-age approach, although whether its repercussions will be entirely non-lethal remains to be determined.


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